In the thirteenth year of Nabuwat the people of Madinah, young and old came into the blazing heat of the Arabian sun to scan the horizon for any signs of the arrival from Makkah, of the last of all Ambiyaa (Prophets) A.S. of Allah- Rasulullah Muhammad . When he did not arrive, the people returned to their homes to renew their watch the following morning.
Among these Madinites were Christians and Jews who were expecting the 'promised one' according to their belief, and the one who would look favourable towards their religion.
There were also those who were anxious and curious to see what the new Rasool of Allah looked like, and whose name had become a household word throughout the Arabian peninsula and also among the neighbouring countries.
Above all, the worry of the Muhajireen and Ansaar was so great that they prayed for the safe deliverance of their beloved Rasulullah from the tormenting and vindictive Quraish of Makkah.
Meanwhile the clouds of panic among the Quraish were gathering fast. Fearful of the escape of Rasulullah , an assembly of the Quraish met at Dar-un-Nadwa, and some chiefs of other clans were invited to attend. The matter had become one of life and death. The meeting was violent, for fear had entered their hearts. Imprisonment for life, expulsion from the city, each was debated in turn. Assassination was then proposed; but assassination by one man would have exposed him and his family to the vengeance of blood. The difficulty was at last solved by Abu Jahl (Abu Hakam Umar bin Hishaam), who suggested that a number of courageous men, chosen from different families should unsheathe their swords simultaneously in Rasulullah 's bosom. In this way the responsibility of the action might rest upon all. The relations of Muhammed (i.e. Banu Abdi Munaaf's tribe) might consequently be unable to avenge his death. This proposal was accepted. A number of youths were selected for this sinister action. As the night advanced the assassins posted themselves round Rasulullah 's dwelling. Thus they watched all night long, waiting to murder him when he should leave his house in the early dawn, peeping now and then through a hole in order to make sure that he still lay on his bed. But Rasulullah had already received the Divine warning of the attempt on his life. At the same time he also received a Divine Command to migrate that very night. Rasulullah asked Hazrat Ali (R.A.) to spend the night in his bed. Rasulullah also asked Hazrat Ali (R.A.) to return all the goods and property that was left in trust with him.
Rasulullah then read the first nine verses of Surah Yaaseen on a handful of sand and threw it on the would be assassins forming a tight cordon around Rasulullah 's house. Allah made them all temporarily blind Rasulullah practically walked past them without the enemies knowing, and Rasulullah proceeded to the house of his close companion Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.)
Allah says in the Quran:
Remember how the Unbelievers plotted against
you, to keep you in bounds, or slay you, or to get you
out (of your home), they plot and plan, and Allah too
plans, but the best of planners is Allah.
On reaching the house of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), Rasulullah found his dearest friend in readiness for Hijrat. His joy knew no bounds and tears welled up in the eyes when Rasulullah told him he was to be his traveling companion. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) informed Rasulullah that he had bought and fattened two dromedaries (camels) for this very journey. One was a gift for Rasulullah . But Rasulullah insisted on paying for the camel. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) reluctantly accepted a payment for it. Hazrat Asma binte Abu Bakr (R.A.) also prepared ample provision for the journey.
Cautiously the two friends set off. Having lived in Makkah for fifty three years, Rasulullah was so overwhelmed with emotion that he turned his head towards Makkah and exclaimed:
'By Allah! you are the best of lands and most
beloved to Allah. If I were not compelled to leave
I would never have forsaken you'.
They proceeded for the cave of Thoor, a cave situated five kilometers from Makkah. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) quickly cleaned the cave and made Rasulullah as comfortable as he could while he shielded him from any danger from outside. By a Divine phenomenon, a spider spun a web across the mouth of the cave and a pigeon laid eggs in a nest at the very entrance.
A person passed the house of Rasulullah and seeing the tight cordon of the Quraish warriors, he asked them what they were doing. He was told that they were going to assassinate Rasulullah . The passer-by informed them that they were wasting their time because Rasulullah had already departed. Enraged the Kuffaar broke into the house and found Hazrat Ali (R.A.) in bed. More determined than ever to capture Rasulullah , they offered a huge price of one hundred camels to the person who brings them the Prophet -dead or alive.
The enemy came close to the cave but decided that no one could possibly have entered the cave without disturbing the web or the nest. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.)'s fears were raised when he heard the enemy outside the cave. But Rasulullah consoled him with the words:
'Do not fear, for Allah is with us'.
Mention of this event has been made in the Qur'aan
If you help not (your leader), (it is no matter): for
Allah did indeed help him, when Unbelievers drove
him out: he had no more than one companion; they
were two in the cave and he said to his companion,
'Have no fear, (for) Allah is with us'
(Sura: Taubah v:40).
Hazrat Abdullah bin Abu Bakr (R.A.) patrolled the streets of Makkah daily and at night would inform Rasulullah and Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) of the movement of the Kuffaar. Amir bin Fuhairah, a shepherd would daily feed them with goat milk.
After three days, when it seemed that it was safe enough for them to emerge from the cave, Abdullah bin Areeqat, a friendly and trusted guide, led them along the west coast of the Arabian peninsula, using a path less frequented by regular travellers.
However, when they had travelled some distance, a Quraish warrior, Suraqqa bin Malik, attempted to attack Rasulullah in the hope of collecting the price of one hundred camels offered by the Quraish.
Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.)'s fears were increased and he said to Rasulullah :
'This man has come in search of us'
Rasulullah made dua and the feet of Suraqaa bin Malik's horse sunk knee length into the rocky ground. At last trembling with fear, he asked forgiveness of Rasulullah and returned to Makkah with the promise to dissuade any enemy in pursuit of Rasulullah .
The first signal of their arrival in Quba, situated five kilometres to the south of Madinah, which was well known for its beauty and fertility was greeted by a Jew watching on a tower who first saw Rasulullah and called out.
'O Muslims here comes the saviour whom you were waiting for'.
The prophecy of the book 'People of the Book' was now being fulfilled by the following Qur'aanic verse:
'Those to whom We have given the Book
Know this as they know their own sons'.
(Surah: Al-Anaam v:20)
Rasulullah was warmly welcomed by the Muslims in Quba. Hazrat Kulthoom bin Hadam (R.A.) had the honour of hosting Rasulullah . During his stay for fourteen days in Quba, Rasulullah laid the foundation of the first Masjid of his Prophethood, Masjid-e-Quba. Allah refers to this in the Qur'aan in the following manner:
'There is a Masjid whose foundation was laid from
the first day on piety'.
(Surah: Taubah v:108)
While in Quba the youthful Hazrat Ali (R.A.) joined Rasulullah . Hazrat Ali (R.A.) had been severely maltreated by the Quraish after their disappointment at Rasulullah 's escape. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) fled from Makkah and journeyed on foot, hiding himself in the daytime and travelling at night, least he should fall into the hands of the Quraish. Before leaving Makkah , Hazrat Ali (R.A.) duly carried out the instructions of Rasulullsh of returning all the valuables to their respective owners who had kept their items in trust with Rasulullah .
Rasulullah entered Madinah on Friday 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal 623 A.D. It was time for Zohar salaah while he was in the Banu Salim locality. He dismounted from his camel 'Al-Qaswa'. and led the first Jumuah Khutba (Sermon) in Madinah in an open field . In later years, a Masjid was built on this site. Remounting his camel, Rasulullah proceeded further into Madinah.Since many people had not seen Rasulullah before, Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) discreetly kept behind Rasulullah and every know and then used a sheet over the head of Rasulullah to shelter him from the scorching sun. This showed the people the difference between himself and the Rasul of Allah.
Hazrat Abu Barrar (R.A.) had reported:
'The entry of Rasulullah in Madinah was a sight no one had ever seen before, and perhaps will never see again.The delight, joy and cheerfulness; the luster and splendour of Rasulullah 's entry into Madinah is beyond description'.
In true Arabian tradition, the little girls of the Banu-un-Najjar tribe of Madinah sang welcome songs of joy from the roof-tops, with the accompaniment of tambourines. They sang songs of joy and praises of Allah:
'The full moon has risen on us from behind
Sanniyat-ul-Wida (the farewell Mountain Pass)
We are duty bound to thank Allah so long as one is
in our midst who calls us to Allah. To you who has
been sent to us by Allah we present our perfect
The people of Madinah jostled and struggled with each other in their eagerness to persuade Rasulullah to be their guest. Among them were the tribe of Banu Adee, the relatives of Abdul Muttalib, who claimed the right of hospitality to Rasulullah . But Rasulullah 's reply was the same as to others :
'Leave her (i.e the she camel, Al Qaswa), she is under Divine Command, and I will only dismount where she kneels down'.
The camel stopped at an uncultivated site which belonged to two orphans of the Banu Najjar, the clan to which belonged the mother of Nabi -Bibi Aamena.
Nearby this vacant ground was the house of Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansaari (R.A.) extended his hospitality to Rasulullah and Nabi became his guest. Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansaari (R.A.) is also remember for his 'Shahaadat' (martyrdom) in Constantinople during the Khilaphate of Hazrat Mu'awiyah bin Abu Soofyaan (R.A.).