After the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, there was a general feeling of security, calm and solitude.
The people of Makkah and other tribes who had not as yet accepted Islam, began to be drawn towards Rasulullah . They were presently suprised with his sublime character and personality. They learnt the refined Islamic way of life from the Sahaba(R.A.) and generally embraced Islam in great numbers.
Khalid ibn Walid (R.A.) one of the greatest warriors of the Quraish had heard Rasulullah recite the Qur'aan at Hudaybiyah. This had touched his heart to the core and drew him towards Islam. His Friend Amr ibn Al-As-al-Shami was also a staunch Quraishi follower and had presented false claims against the Muhajireen in the court of King Najjashi of Abyssinia. Khalid ibn Walid and Amr ibn al'As now began to see the true light of Islam and they confided their feelings with Uthman ibn Abu Talha (R.A.). The three friends left Makkah and presented themselves to Rasulullah and embraced Islam.
Rasulullah had up to now confined himself to the preaching of Islam to the Arabian Peninsula only. His was a universal mission to all mankind. The dispirited forces of the enemies of Islam were no longer a great threat to his mission. Islam was the greatest power in Arabia. The Quraish had failed miserably in their attempt to stop the powerful tide of Islam.
Rasulullah now turned his attention to beyond the boundaries of Arabia, towards neighboring states, kingdoms and their monarchs. He was aware that the common subjects of these states were swayed entirely at the whims and fancies of their emperors or kings.
In fact, the Islamic message had by this time reached a high level of permanency and wide reaching effect. The time was ripe for its propagation beyond the borders of the Arabian peninsula. Besides the doctrine of the unity of Allah and its implications for worship and ethics, the Islamic message developed so widely as to include within its scope all aspects of social activity and human relations. The way of life Islam projected was better than any other system of life to enable man to attain perfection and to realize the existence of Allah.
Thus Rasulullah sent letters and emissaries to Heraclius of Rome, Chosroes of Persia, the Archbishop of Alexandria, Najjashi (Negus) of Abyssinia, king Al-Harith of Ghassan and the Governor of Yemen.
Rasulullah was told by one of his learned Sahabi (R..A.) that these kings were prone to treat only those letters as authentic if it carried the 'Mohr' (seal or official stamp) of the sender. The Sahaba (R.A.) made for Rasulullah a seal out of silver with the inscription 'Muhammed Rasulullah'. All his letters bore this seal and experienced Sahaba and messengers were entrusted for their delivery.
One such letter was addressed to the Emperor of Rome who ruled over a vast domain expanding from Syria and Egypt to Constantinople. It was considered the greatest of all kingdoms at that time with a following of Christianity.
Rasulullah 's Epistle:
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious Most Merciful.
From Muhammed servant and messenger of Allah
to Heraclius Emperor of Rome.
Peace upon those who follow the Guidance.
I invite you to Islam; accept Islam, you will be safe.
Allah will grant you two-fold reward; if you turn
away, the sin of (the wrong doings of) all the people
will be upon you. O people of the Book: Come to an
agreement between us and you; that we worship
none but Allah, and that we shall associate no
partners to Him, and that none of us shall take
others for Lords besides Allah. And if they turn
away, then say: Bear witness that we have
surrendered to Him.
Muhammed messenger of Allah.
Rasulullah 's messenger Hazrat Dihyah ibn Khalifa al Kalbi met Heraclius at the time, when he (Heraclius) was victoriously returning from the war with Persia and his recapture of the cross which had been taken by the Persians when they occupied Jerusalem. Heraclius had taken a vow to perform a pilgrimage to Jerusalem on foot and return the cross to its original place. It was on this pilgrimage of Heraclius, when he reached the city of Hims- old city of Emessa in Syria that the letters of Rasulullah was received.
Heraclius sought someone who could give him more information about Rasulullah . Abu Sufyan happened to be in Syria at the time and he was called before the Roman Emperor. Although Abu Sufyaan was an enemy of Islam, he gave a truthful version of the character of Rasulullah and the message of Islam. This impressed the emperor so much that he responded favorably towards Rasulullah 's invitation to Islam. This angered his clergy so much that the Emperor had to appease them in some way but he lost out on the virtuous way of Islamic life.
Rasulullah sent Hazrat Abdullah ibn Hudhaifa (R.A.) with a letter to Khusroe, the king of Persia. When he read the letter, Khusre tore it up and ill-treated the envoy of Rasulullah . Then he wrote a letter to the governor of Yemen, Bazan, to send two strong men to Hijaz and to bring this man to him. When they reached Madinah, Rasulullah told them that their King had been killed the night before by his son Cyrus. When they got back to Yemen, they found the news was true. When Bazan's messengers told their master of Rasulullah 's response, he immediately embraced Islam. He was retained as the governor of Yemen by Rasulullah .
Rasulullah prophesied that eventually, the whole of Iran (Persia) would become Muslim. The prophecy proved true when during the Khilaphate of Hazrat Umar (R.A.), Iran became part of the Muslim Empire.
Rasulullah sent Hazrat Hatib ibn abi Balta'a (R.A.) with a letter to the ruler of Alexandria and Egypt, Muqauqis Jarih bin Mati. Hazrat Hatib ibn Abi Bala'a (R.A.) gave him the letter of Rasulullah and explained the basic teaching of Islam. Muqauqis did not accept Islam but treated the envoy with respect and honour and sent some gifts to Rasulullah with a letter. These included two slaves girls, one of whom was Maria mother of Hazrat Ibrahim (Rasulullah's son who passed away in early age), and a white mule which came to be known as Daldal. He kept the letter in an ivory box which is still preserved in the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul, Turkey .Rasulullah accepted his gifts.
Rasulullah sent Hazrat 'Amr ibn Umayya Al-Damri (R.A) to Negus Al-sham bin Abjar, King of Abyssina. The Negus received the envoy with great respect and showed him all the honour he deserved and accepted Islam.
Hazrat Harith ibn Amr (R.A.) was on his way to the governor of Syria Shurabil Al-Ghassnee with the epistle from Rasulullah . However, under instructions by the governor Shrabil, Hazrat Harith ibn Amr (R.A.) was received with contempt and afterwards treacherously murdered near Karak in the Balqua region. This cowardly act incised the Muslims because it was an accepted fact that no messenger of any tribe, clan or state should be harmed by anyone. In the month of Jamadil Awwal 8 A.H. (629 C.E.), Nabi sent 3000 Sahaba (R.A.) to confront Shurabil. Hazrat Zaid ibn Harith (R.A.) was appointed the commander of the Muslims. In the event of Hazrat Zaid (R.A.)'s fall. Hazrat Ja'far ibn Abu Talib was to assume the command of the army. In the event of Hazrat Ja'far's (R.A.) death Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawaha (R.A.) was to take his place.
Shurabil Al-Ghassanee gathered 100,000 warriors among whom were the mighty soldiers of Rome led by their emperor. This was the first encounter of the Muslims against the might of the Romans.
During the heavy fighting at Mu'tah, the chief commanders of the Muslim army were martyred. Hazrat Khlid ibn Walid (R.A.) then took up the command. With the greatest of skill and strategy, he maneuvered his warriors in such a manner that the entire Roman army fled the battlefield ands the Muslims turned to Madinah victorious. Hazrat Khalid ibn Walid (R.A.) was honored with the title of 'Saifullah' (the Sword of Allah) for his brave deed.
Rasulullah sent Hazrat Sulait ibn Amr Amri (R.A.) to the ruler of Yamama, Houza ibn Ali Hanafi, with a letter inviting him to accept Islam. The ruler of Yamama read the letter and treated the envoy of Rasulullah with respect and honour and wrote a letter to Rasululah in which he wanted to bargain and then accept Islam. He gave gifts to the envoy and cotton cloth for Rasulullah . Rasulullah replied that Islam was not spread by way of bribery.
Rasulullah continued sending out his invitation to Islam. The ruler of some of the areas of Yemen and Taif, Zulkela Humeri received the letter of Rasulullah . He belonged to the strong and powerful family of Humir, who ruled over Yemen. He called himself god and ordered people to prostrate before him. When he embraced Islam, he freed 18,000 slaves in one day.
Thus the Islamic State of Rasulullah covered the length and breadth of Arabia and Rasulullah foresaw the Islamic banner flying beyond the horizons and which made the powerful Roman and Persian Empires fearful of the future.