In the Year 10 A.H. the power of the kuffar and oppositions of the non Muslims states had virtually disappeared. The mission of Rasulullah had been completed. The Muslims began to enjoy peace, prosperity and security. Arabia became an Islamic State and this afforded the Muslims the opportunity to practise their faith freely and without any hindrance from anyone.
Rasulullah appointed his trustworthy and pious Sahaba (R.A.) to various parts of Arabia to propound and to consolidate the principles of Islam and to guide those, who in their weakness, might bring disrepute to the faith. Islam had reached the highest pinnacle of glory. The Sahaba (R.A.) were tutored and trained by their beloved Nabi on the five pillars of Islam: (1) Imaan (belief) (2) Salaah (prayer) (3) Saum (fasting) (4) Zakaat (charity) (5) Hajj (pilgrimage).
Rasulullah established "madaris"; courts of justice; protection for the underprivileged and the oppressed. Learned Sahaba (R.A.) were appointed Amirs, magistrates, judges and governors under the banner of Islam.
Hazrat Khalid ibn Walid (R.A.) was responsible for bringing the tribes of Najraan into the fold of Islam. Hazrat Ali Abu Talib (R.A.) annexed the formidable Bazaan, the king of Yemen to the Islamic State. Then came the revelation of Surah Nasr:
Rasulullah understood that Allah was pleased with his humble work and gaining the impression of his approaching end, he announced his intention to perform Hajj, the ultimate rite of every Muslim. He advised his Sahaba (R.A.) to do likewise.
The month of Dhu al Qadah was almost at an end, to be followed by Dhul Hijjah the month of Hajj (pilgrimage). Until that time, Nabi had not performed the Hajj, though he had performed Umrah on two previous occasions. The ritual (arkan) of Hajj had to be established in its entirety so that Muslims might learn to follow it.
As soon as the people knew of Rasulullah 's intention and heard his call to march with him for Hajj, the whole Peninsula reverberated with the call, and thousands and thousands of people from all corners poured into Madinah. From every town and village. From every mountain and valley, from every plain and desert across the wide Peninsula the people arrived to perform the Hajj. It was as if this very vast expanse of land had all been illuminated by the dazzling light of Allah and his Rasool Around Madinah tents were set up to accommodate the new visitors, numbering 100,000 or more, who rose up in response to the call of their Nabi . All these men came as brethren, in love and respect for one another, and united in true bond of friendship and Islamic brotherhood. whereas but yesteryear they had been the most hostile of enemies. These thousands upon thousands of men filled the streets of Madinah, all manifesting the smiles of faith, the certainty of conviction and the confidence and pride of true religion. Their gathering was an inspiring evidence of the victory of truth, of the wide reach of the light of Allah and the deep bond of truth and righteousness which had cemented them one to the other so that they stood like one great fortress.
There was feverish activity in Madinah. But above all, every Muslim longed to see Rasulullah People jostled and clamoured to touch him or part of his garment for blessings. The scene of respect, love and tenderness and the reverence of the Sahaba (R.A.) towards their beloved Nabi could never have been witnessed in any kingdom of the world.
On the twenty fifth of Dhul Qadah of the year 10 A.H. (23rd February 632 A.D.) Rasulullah set forth towards Makkah accompanied by all his wives each riding her own carriage. He was followed by a great multitude, numbering 114,000. These men marched with consciences deeply moved by their Imaan, with hearts full of joy and contentment at their intended accomplishment of Hajj to the holy sanctuary of Allah.
They reached Dhu al Hulayfah at the end of the day and there they spent the night. On the following morning, Rasulullah put on his Ehram (sacred state) and the Muslims followed his example. Everyone changed their clothes and put on two pieces of unsewn white cloth, the simplest of all garments. In this way, they expressed the absolute equal political, economic and legal right for all its citizens-Islam, in its most eloquent highest sense. Muhammed turned to Allah with all his heart and mind praying, "At your service O Allah! At your service! You have no associates! At your service, O Allah! Praise be to Allah! Thank be to Allah! At your service' O Allah! You have no associates, O Allah! At your service O Allah". all the Muslims repeated these words after him. Deserts, valleys and mountains reverberated with this prayer. The sky itself reverberated with the call of all those pious, believing and worshipping souls.
Thus the procession continued on its way to Makkah, its thousands and hundreds of thousands filling the air with the sound of his prayer. At every masjid on the way to Makkah, the procession would stop to pray, and the voices of thousands would rise proclaiming the unity of Allah, their praise and blessing in anticipation of the great day of Hajj that awaited them. Everyone impatient to reach the sanctuary of Allah that he revered and honoured more than anything else in the world. Undoubtedly the deserts, mountains , valley, the trees, birds and skies were moved by what they witnessed in this great call, the like of which they had never heard before. They and the Peninsula had been blessed by the coming Nabi Muhammed , the servant of Allah and his Rasool.
The procession reached Makkah on the fourth of Dhul al Hijjah. Upon arrival, Rasulullah followed by the Sahaba (R.A.) hastened to the Ka'bah. There Rasulullah went to the Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone) and kissed it. Then he circumambulated the holy sanctuary seven times, the first three of which he did at a marching pace, just as he had done during the Umra. He then proceeded to the sanctuary of Ibrahim (A.S.) where he performed salaah. Returning to the Hajr-e-Aswad, he kissed it once more than went to Mount al Safa and from there performed the Sai between that mount and the mount of Marwah.
On the eight day of Dhul al Hijjah Rasulullah went to Mina and spent the day and night in that locality. There he performed all Salaah incumbent during that period. The following day, Nabi S.A.W. recited his Fajr Salaat and, at sunrise, proceeded on his camel al Qaswa, to the Mount of Arafat, followed by all the pilgrims. As he ascended the mountain, he was surrounded by thousands of his Sahaba (R.A.) reciting the talbiyah and the takbir. Nabi asked some of the Sahaba (R.A.) to put up a tent for him on the east side of the mountain as a spot called Namirah. When the sun passed the zenith, he ordered his camel to be saddled, and rode on it until he reached the valley of 'Uranah'.
It was there that he, while sitting on his camel, delivered his sermon in a loud voice to his people. Hazrat Rabi'ah ibn Umayyah ibn Khalaf (R.A.) repeated the sermon after him sentence by sentence.
He began by praising Allah and thanking Him, and turning to the people, he said:
"O Men. listen well to my words, for I do not know whether I shall meet you again on such an occasion in the future. O men, your lives and your property shall be inviolate until you meet your Lord. The safety of your lives and of your property shall be as inviolate as this holy day and holy month. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Thus do I warn you. Whoever of you is keeping a trust of someone else shall return that trust to its rightful owner. All interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer injustice. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al Muttalib shall hence forth be waived. Every right arising out of homicide in pre-islamic days is henceforth waived. And the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi'ah ibn Hrith ibn 'Abd al Muttalib. (ibn Rabi'ah, a cousin of Rasulullah . He was confided, in infancy, to the care of a family of the Banu Laith. This child was cruelly murdered by the member of the tribe of Huzail, but the murder was not yet avenged). O Men, the shaytaan has lost all hope of ever being worshipped in this land of yours. Nevertheless, he still is anxious to induce you in the lesser of your deeds. Beware of him, therefore, for the safety of your religion. O Men, adding or tampering with the calendar is evidence of great unbelief and confirms the unbelievers in their misguidance. They include in it one year and forbid it in the next in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to forbid that which Allah has made permissible. The pattern according to which the time is reckoned is always the same. With Allah, the month are twelve in number. (The Arabs added a month every three years to re-establish equilibrium and bring the same dates back to the same seasons). O men, to you a right belongs with respect to your women a right with respect to you. It is your right that they do not fraternize with anyone whom you do not approve, as well as never to commit adultery. But if they do, then Allah has permitted you to isolate them within their homes and to chastise them without cruelty. But if they abide by your right, then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are you partners and committed helpers. Remember that you have taken them as your wives and enjoy their flesh only under Allah's trust and with His permission. Reason well, therefore, O men, and ponder my words which I now convey to you. I am leaving you with the Kitab of Allah and the Sunnah of His Rasool. If you follow them, you will never go astray . O Men, listen well to my words. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslim constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belonged to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not therefore do injustice to your own slaves. Let him that is present tell it unto him that is absent. Possibly he that shall be told may remember better than he who had heard it".
As Rasulullah delivered his speech, Hazrat Rabi'ah ibn Umayyah ibn Khalaf (R.A.) repeated it sentence by sentence and asked the people every now and then whether or not they had understood Rasulullah 's words and committed them to memory. In order to make sure that the people understood and remembered, Rasulullah used to ask his message bearer to say "The Rasool of Allah asks, 'Do you know which day is this?" The audience would answer, "Today is the day of Hajj".
At the end of the speech, Rasulullah exclaimed. "O Allah! I have delivered my message and accomplished my work". The assembled Sahaba (R.A.) below with one voice cried, "Yes, indeed so! Allah be witness". O Allah I beseech you, bear you witness unto it".
With these words Rasulullah finished his address, which according to tradition, was remarkable for its length, its eloquence and enthusiasm. Rasulullah dismounted and waited till noon, at which time he performed both the noon (zohar) and the mid afternoon (Asr) salaah. He then mounted his camel and proceed to al Sakarat where he recited to the people the concluding divine revelation : "Today I have completed for you your religion, and granted you the last of my blessings. Today I have accepted for you Islam as the religion". When Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiqe (R.A.) heard these verse he realized that with the completion of the divine message, Rasulullah 's life was soon to come to a close.
Rasulullah left 'Arafat and spent his night at Muzdalifah. In the morning, he first visited the sanctuary of al Mash'ar, and then Mina on the road to which he threw pebbles against the symbol of Shaytaan. When he reached his tent, he sacrificed sixty three camels, one for each year of his life. Hazrat Ali ibn Abu Talib
(R.A), sacrificed the rest (37) of the animals which Rasulullah S.A.W had brought with him from Madinah. Rasulullah then had his head shaved by Hazrat Mi'mar ibn Abdullah (R.A.) and returned to Makkah to perform the Tawaf. On the same day he returned to Mina where he stayed for three days. On the 13th day after midday he departed from Minah towards Makkah. On the way he stopped over in the valley of Muhassab and performed the Zohar, Asr, Maghrib and Esha Salaah there and rested for the night. In the last part of the night he entered Makkah, performed his last Tawaf thereafter read his Fajr Salaah and departed for Madinah.
This Hajj is sometimes called "The Farewell Hajj". Others have called it the "Hajj of the Annunciation" and others, the "Hajj of Islam". In reality, Rasulullah 's Hajj was all these at once. It was the "Farewell Hajj: because Rasulullah saw Makkah and the holy Haram for the last time. It was also the "Hajj of Islam" because Allah completed His religion for the benefit of mankind and granted them His total blessing. Finally, it was also the "Hajj of Annunciation" because Rasulullah completed his announcement and conveyance to the people of what had been commanded by Allah to announce and to convey.